When faced with a problematic situation, most people are distracted and overwhelmed by all the information around them, which deters them from finding a solution. However, if you can filter the important information from the unimportant ones, you will be able to resolve the situation much quicker.
View the big picture of your problem by learning about it hands-on.
If you have a problem that requires solving, get some hands-on experience in that field and understand the real-world context of the problem. You will then be able to come up with the best solution for it.
Take the creation of the “Embrace Nest” for example. The problem was that incubators to keep low-birth-weight newborns warm were too expensive for the many people in developing countries, resulting in these infants dying. Instead of just creating a cheaper alternative, the researchers on this project visited rural villages in Nepal and realized that most babies were born in homes that had no electricity - a cheaper electric incubator would not have been of use to them. So, they developed an alternative incubator which did not require electricity to be used.
Look at the problem from different perspectives.
Put yourself in the shoes of the other people involved in the problem and see it from their perspectives. This will help you understand the problem from multiple angles; you may be able to see something you were not previously aware of.
Clarify the question.
When you are faced with a problem, come up with a clear question you need to answer with the solution. Make sure this question reflects the goals you are trying to achieve. Clarifying the question in this manner will show you the broad direction you need to take with your solution.